There are millions of cars on the road and each one is a source of air pollution. Especially in large cities, the amount of pollution that all the cars produce together can create big problems.
To solve emission related problems and comply with emission laws, automakers have made many refinements to car engines and fuel systems to keep up with these laws. One of these major changes came about in 1975 with an interesting device called a catalytic converter. The job of the catalytic converter is to convert harmful pollutants into less harmful emissions before they ever leave the car’s exhaust system.
Catalytic converters are amazingly simple devices, so it is incredible to see how big an impact they have.
In order to reduce emissions, modern car engines carefully control the amount of fuel they burn. They try to keep the air-to-fuel ratio very close to the stoichiometric point, which is the ideal ratio of air to fuel. Theoretically, at this ratio, all of the fuel will be burned using all of the oxygen in the air. For gasoline, the stoichiometric ratio is about 14.7:1, meaning that for each kilogram of gasoline, 14.7 kilograms of air will be burned. The fuel mixture actually varies from the ideal ratio quite a bit during driving. Sometimes the mixture can be lean (an air-to-fuel ratio higher than 14.7), and other times the mixture can be rich (an air-to-fuel ratio lower than 14.7).
The main emissions of a car engine are:
Nitrogen gas (N2) – Air is 78-percent nitrogen gas, and most of this pass right through the car engine.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) – This is one product of combustion. The carbon in the fuel bonds with the oxygen in the air.
Water vapor (H2O) – This is another product of combustion. The hydrogen in the fuel bonds with the oxygen in the air.
These emissions are mostly benign, although carbon dioxide emissions are believed to contribute to global warming. Because the combustion process is never perfect, some smaller amounts of more harmful emissions are also produced in car engines. Catalytic converters are designed to reduce all three:
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous gas that is colourless and odorless.
Hydrocarbons or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a major component of smog produced mostly from evaporated, unburned. fuel.
Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, together called NOx) are a contributor to smog and acid rain, which also causes irritation to human mucus membranes.
In chemistry, a catalyst can be defines as a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected. Catalysts participate in the reactions, but are neither reactants nor products of the reaction they catalyse.
In the catalytic converter, there are two different types of catalyst at work, a reduction catalyst and an oxidation catalyst. Both types consist of a ceramic structure coated with a metal catalyst, usually platinum, rhodium and/or palladium. The idea is to create a structure that exposes the maximum surface area of catalyst to the exhaust stream, while also minimizing the amount of catalyst required, as the materials are extremely expensive. Some of the newest converters have even started to use gold mixed with the more traditional catalysts. Gold is cheaper than the other materials and could increase oxidation, the chemical reaction that reduces pollutants, by up to 40 percent.
Most modern cars are equipped with three-way catalytic converters. This refers to the three regulated emissions it helps to reduce.
The reduction catalyst is the first stage of the catalytic converter. It uses platinum and rhodium to help reduce the NOx emissions. When an NO or NO2 molecule contacts the catalyst, the catalyst rips the nitrogen atom out of the molecule and holds on to it, freeing the oxygen in the form of O2. The nitrogen atoms bond with other nitrogen atoms that are also stuck to the catalyst, forming N2. For example:
2NO => N2 + O2 or 2NO2 => N2 + 2O2
2NO => N2 + O2 or 2NO2 => N2 + 2O2
The oxidation catalyst is the second stage of the catalytic converter. It reduces the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide by burning (oxidizing) them over a platinum and palladium catalyst. This catalyst aids the reaction of the CO and hydrocarbons with the remaining oxygen in the exhaust gas. For example:
2CO + O2 => 2CO2
There are two main types of structures used in catalytic converters — honeycomb and ceramic beads. Most cars today use a honeycomb structure.
The third stage of conversion is a control system that monitors the exhaust stream, and uses this information to control the fuel injection system. There is an oxygen sensor mounted upstream of the catalytic converter, meaning it is closer to the engine than the converter. This sensor tells the engine computer how much oxygen is in the exhaust. The engine computer can increase or decrease the amount of oxygen in the exhaust by adjusting the air-to-fuel ratio. This control scheme allows the engine computer to make sure that the engine is running at close to the stoichiometric point, and also to make sure that there is enough oxygen in the exhaust to allow the oxidization catalyst to burn the unburned hydrocarbons and CO.
The catalytic converter does a great job at reducing the pollution, but it can still be improved substantially. One of its biggest shortcomings is that it only works at a fairly high temperature. When you start your car cold, the catalytic converter does almost nothing to reduce the pollution in your exhaust.
One simple solution to this problem was move the catalytic converter closer to the engine. This means that hotter exhaust gases reach the converter and it heats up faster, but this may also reduce the life of the converter by exposing it to extremely high temperatures. Most carmakers position the converter under the front passenger seat, far enough from the engine to keep the temperature down to levels that will not harm it.
Preheating the catalytic converter is a good way to reduce emissions. The easiest way to preheat the converter is to use electric resistance heaters. Unfortunately, the 12-volt electrical systems on most cars don’t provide enough energy or power to heat the catalytic converter fast enough. Most people would not wait several minutes for the catalytic converter to heat up before starting their car. Hybrid cars that have big, high-voltage battery packs can provide enough power to heat up the catalytic converter very quickly.
Instead of three-way catalysts, diesels use two-way oxidation catalysts (which only tackle carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons), and ones specifically designed to work with diesel exhausts, which are significantly cooler than gasoline exhausts.
Since they don’t have reduction catalysts, diesel engines produce much higher tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides than gasoline engines.
Some of the leading environmental auto experts have come up with a new system that helps to combat this. They inject a urea solution in the exhaust pipe, before it gets to the converter, to evaporate and mix with the exhaust and create a chemical reaction that will reduce NOx. Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. It’s found in the urine of mammals and amphibians. Urea reacts with NOx to produce nitrogen and water vapor, disposing more than 90 percent of the nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases
Catalytic Converter Theft
All over Kenya catalytic converter theft has become rampant. A standard catalytic converter contains several thousand worth of platinum, palladium and rhodium. The ground clearance on trucks and SUVs makes for easy access to the converters, so all a thief needs is the portable gas / drill and about 60 seconds.
Some witty kawayas do not use force to steal but ll they do is to advice you to remove the catalytic converter to achieve performance.
Questions, Comments and Discussion highly welcomed.